Islamic Terrorism and the Balkans: The Perfect Training Ground
By Ioannis Michaletos Serbianna.com (12/04/06)
The emergence of radical militant Islam during the 90s is a very complicated issue that involves worldwide actors, social dynamics and a deep knowledge of the religious realm of the Islamic world. This article aims to present and inform for the events that shaped Islamic terrorism in the Balkans. In this corner of Europe, the past 15 years, the roots of Islamic radicalism have deepened and it is of the outermost importance to comprehend this phenomenon, so as to be able to combat it.
The beginning of the Yugoslavian civil strife in 1991 presented an excellent chance for the Mujahedin to get into Europe via the ethno-cultural conflict between Christians and Muslims in Bosnia. These religious mercenaries had proved their aptitude in war from the early 80s when they fought the Soviet Army in Afghanistan, and managed to inflict great damages to it using Western assistance.
The West at that period, along with its regional allies, promoted the creation of the so-called Green Zone. That meant the creation of strong Islamic pockets in areas of Soviet influence, or in border countries that deemed important for the strategy of the West against the Soviets. Thus Afghanistan, Pakistan, Caucasus, and in Turkey (through the use of the Turkish Hezbollah), became radicalized during the 80s.
What the West could not comprehend and predict at that period, is the Genie out of the bottle effect. Once these radicals groups gained access to armaments and training, they became autonomous and sought to create their own agenda. Therefore the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina was the trial test of their newly founded role.
In mid-1992 some 3000 - 3500 Mujahedin were already present in the ranks of the Bosnian Army as volunteer forces. They retained their operational autonomy and in essence became an army within an army. Most of their forces were under the command of General Shakib Mahmouljin and their area of operations was Zenica. Soon the Mujahedin acquired the aura of the elite force within the Bosnian Muslim Army and were accounted for many atrocities against the civilian Christian population. There were instances where the guerillas didnt hesitate in presenting publicly beheaded corpses with the heads of the victims in baskets, a tactic often used in the Ottoman period as a part of psychological warfare against the enemy.
During the Bosnian war, the Al-Qaeda was beginning to emerge as a world wide Islamic force that intended to strike the West with all means possible. One of the key elements in its success would be to get a hold of safe havens in Europe. The situation in Bosnia was the opportunity wanted, and soon logistic bases were established within the Bosnian territory. Moreover a campaign of recruiting Bosnian Muslims to the Al Qaeda cause, resulted in the creation of Islamic pockets in the middle of the Balkans. By the end of 1995 and the subsequent Dayton treaty that ended the war; hundreds of Mujahedin fighters were permanent residents of the established Bosnia-Herzegovina state, and acquired the citizenship of that country.
The USA security agencies have revealed that two of the hijackers in 9/11 attacks, had toured the Balkans and were trained in an Al-Qaeda camp in Bosnia. In addition the explosives used in the 7/7 attacks in London came from the Balkans, an event that portrays the tremendous lack of perspective that the West had when it tolerated the emergence of such networks.
The Albanian nationalism and the Islamic terrorism
As in the case of Bosnia, the Albanian Muslims (70% of the population) proved to be a magnet for the Islamists that sought to regain a foothold in Europe. The conditions by which Albania was freed by the Communist regime in the early 90s, revealed the existence of a backward isolated country with no interaction with the rest of the world. The transition from a central command structure to that of a free market; ensured the development of multiple societal forces within the much repressed Albanian society.
In early 1994 the infamous Osama Bin Laden, paid a visit to Tirana, presumably to oversight the networking of his activities there. He came back in 1998 with Al-Qaeda training camps in the Northern part of Albania, just across the borders with Kosovo. The trainers of Arabic origin mostly- were assigned to train the newly recruits of the Usthria Climirtare e Kosoves U.C.K- units for the forthcoming guerilla warfare against the Yugoslav forces in Kosovo.
In Spring 2001, the Mujahedin forces, once again, were brought to day light by joining the National Liberation Army in its fight in Western FYROM. The NLA was a composition of various Albanian fractions that along with the Islamic extremists sought to prepare the basis for the disintegration of FYROM. There is a large Albanian minority in the country, which also happens to be located right in the centre of the Balkans and where the Balkan drug route passes by. The Mujahedin formed the majority of the 113 brigade of NLA, and were accused of many atrocities against innocent civilians of Slavic descent.
On August 2001 the Ohrid accord was signed and the conflict ceased without any real gains by the Albanian side. A month later, the attack on the twin towers revealed to the world the spread and the power the terrorist organizations have amassed, thus the War on terror begun and to a great extent dismantled the world wide Islamic terrorist web.
Nowadays in the Balkan area, the existence of terrorist cells and safe havens is a real threat to the stability and coherence of the region and for Europe indirectly. It is more than certain that the local leaderships will soon have to cooperate in order to relieve the much torn-apart Balkans from this 21st menace. One has to remember that it took just 8 years of fighting and preparation in the Afghan War for the Mujahedin to become a global terror- complex. Expansion of the communications and transport facilitates the spread of terror organizations. The recent NATO meeting in Riga revealed the intention of the Atlantic Organization to integrate the Western Balkans along with Serbia to its security structure. That is a great opportunity for Europe and USA to pay a closer and more detailed attention to the hazards of Islamic terrorism in the Balkans, so as, to mitigate the Balkans from a burden that is not its own, and bring more security to Europe as well...
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