Prince Mihailo adamantly defended the SERBIAN LAW
We are a free people, we have a Constitution, our rights are guaranteed! All foreign consuls in Belgrade, except Austrian Vice-Consul Vasic (!) - signed a statement blaming Ašir Pasha.
Incident Cukur fountain 1862. in Belgrade, there were two police. Serbian police has been in charge of Serbian and Turks in the Turkish part of the city. The boundary between the two neighbourhoods stretching from the Danube via Vidin gate trench to Stambol Gate, across Varos Gate to the Sava River and the Sava gate. Since there were Serbian houses in the Turkish part of town, Serbian police headquarters is situated in the Turkish part of town across from the headquarters of the Turkish police. The head of the Serbian police there was a major Mihailo Barlovac (1822-1891). The police was assisted by gendarmerie troops of about 120 gendarms, and also when necessary, by the army under the command of General Ranko Alimpića. Turkish police had support provided by the Turkish military garrison Nizama, located in the Kalemegdan fortress.
The tense political situation in the forcefully divided Belgrade under the partial jurisdiction of the Turkish military and police forces in the summer of 1862. One incident will cause a little war.
On a hot Sunday afternoon, somewhere between 4 and 6pm, June 15, 1862. In Cukur fountains of todays Dobracina street in the Turkish part of town there is an incident between the Serbs and the Turkish soldiers in line for water. Stream of water was low, poured slowly and the line was increasing. Serbian and Turkish soldiers were arguing over who will be the first in line. Waiting in line there was also a boy Sava Petkovic from the village of Lukovo near Kuršumlija. Sava came to Jajinci a village near Belgrade to his relatives Milenko Petrovic and wife Ljubica. He came to teach the harness trade, but at the time he was an apprentice at the grocer Aleks Nikolic (some authors state that Aleks family name was Popovic).
According to one version of the general crowd at the fountain, during the brawls and fights, Sava by accident broke the jar of Turkish soldiers. According to another version - eyewitness testimony of Karlo Perola Italian innkeeper and Italian Consulate official in Belgrade, the Turks asked to drink water from Sava`s pitchers (jugs), and Sava did not allow it. There is a third story, according to which the Turks removed Sava`s jug under the tap and replaced it with their own. However the boy was protesting and one of the Turkish soldiers responded by hitting him in the head with a jug and the kid was badly injured. It is less likely that the version of the Turk drew his bayonet and wounded him. Some sources say that the Serbian tedžurman (interpreter and representative of Turkish authorities) Sima Nesic then escorted the wounded Sava home (probably not in Jajince but to his boss Aleks), while according to other sources, the boy died shortly after being wounded there by the fountain . Since Sava is not mentioned later in historical sources, it is assumed that he in any case later died of his wounds.
The Conflict in Cukur fountain soon escalated and led to physical showdown between Serb and Turkish soldiers. Carlo Preolo argued that tedžurman (interpreter and representative of Turkish authorities) Sima Nesic was close to Čukur fountain on a local wedding and that he together with the Serbian gendarmes rushed to the scene of conflict as soon as the news of the conflict spread across the bazaar. He also claims that the Turks on the spot killed Sima Nesic and gendarme George Nišlija.
According to other testimony Sima was sent to the place of conflict by the Serbian head of the Belgrade Police Major Michael Barlovac. Sima and George were actually trying to save the killer from lynching and arrested him. While he was being escorted to the Serbian police station, the killer tried to run into the building of the Turkish police station across the street. Sima, George and several other Serbian gendarmes ran after him to stop him in that endeavor, but were stopped by shots fired by Turkish officers from the window of the Turkish police. Nesic and Nišlija were killed at the site, and some Serbian gendarmes wounded. Today there is a street in Belgrade (Sima Street)named after Sima Nešić 31 year old public servant and a great polyglot.
Following this incident the Serbian-Turkish conflict is getting more severe and has spread throughout the city. Serbs are encouraged and by organization of artillery Captain, Djoko VLAJKOVIĆ, they were taking from their homes pistols, flintlocks, knifes and whatever weapons they had in possession and clashed with Turks across the town.
There were particularly violent clashes in the area of the Great Market, which was located on the site of the present Student Park. All night there were shootings along the trench and around the outer gate of the city fortress which the Turks have locked. The Turks were positioned in the Busia police and the Serbs in the then unfinished Captain Misa building. Particularly noted in these fights was captain Dimitrije Karadzic, son of Vuk St. Karadzic.
During the night, the Serbs managed to take the outer gates of the city. They teared down the Varos and Sava Gates but not the most hated Stambol gate located in the area between today's National Theatre and the National Museum.
The next day, the Serbian prime minister, Ilija Garasanin tried to calm the situation and to sign a truce with the Turks. At that insisted all foreign consuls in Belgrade, especially the British Consul Longworth, although the British then, before and later always were favoring the Turkish side and accused the Serbs of causing all conflicts in Serbia. Meanwhile the Turks from the fortress of Kalemegdan sent a company of nizam (Turkish regular soldier) to assist the police in the Turkish part of town.
At a time when Turkish soldiers were putting their bayonet on the rifle and prepared to use force against the Serbian population in the Turkish part of town, the SerbianPrime Minister Garasanin arrived. Because of Garasanins sharp protests, the Turkish troop-commander grudgingly agreed on returning to the fort with his soldiers. He demanded Serbian gendarmerie escort for safety.
When the gendarmerie patrol under the command of Lieutenant Ivko Prokić escorted the Turks to the fort, a Turkish soldier fired on the Serb patrol and then the other Turks at the command of their officers started to shoot against the Serbian gendarmes. Lieutenant Prokić was killed and several gendarmes wounded. The conflict basically continued. But with this move the Serbs managed to get the Turks back to their fortress and thus prevent any significant activation of Turkish slaughter on the Serb population in Belgrade.
Lieutenant Ivko Peric was buried the next day at the Old - Tašmajdan cemetery. Half a century later in 1921. A record was created that refers to the cemetery Tašmajdan reminding that Prokić grave still existed, though rusty and with a modest Monument. The monument had the following inscription: "Here lies gendarmerie lieutenant Ivko Prokić that 4 June in 1862. received the crown of martyrdom by the Turks, having faithfully served the Fatherland 22 years. "
On the same day June 16 through consul Longworth, Garasanin and the Turkish commander of Belgrade, Muhafiz Ašir Pasha signed a truce. Although occasionally along the line of separation it came to sporadic gunfire, this action apparently calmed the situation and everything indicated that the worst was over. The third day, June 17, the bombing of Belgrade situation was completely subsided.
Serbs in Belgrade meanwhile gathered about 1,500 members of the army, police, gendarmerie and volunteers armed with four Canons. These forces wisely thanks to Ilija Garašanin stayed on their previous posts. They were opposed by the Turkish garrison of 4,000 soldiers and 200 canons.Serbs used the truce to bury the casualties of the last two days of the conflict. Funeral Service was served by Metropolitan Belgrade-Mihajlo with numerous priests. Attended by a large number of Belgrades population and the military, the police and the gendarmerie. The funeral procession set out from the Cathedral towards the square, (The Student Square today) from where they are supposed to continue towards Tasmajdan graveyard. (Tasmajdan Park today).
Not long before the incident of “ Čukur fountain” in a letter to Serbian kapućehaji Jovan Ristic (diplomatic representative) in Constantinople, The Prime Minister Ilija Garasanin wrote: "The Serbian government can not consider Belgrade safe as long as the Turkish fortress have their cannons pointing at it. And with the other castles in a similar state, the peace and security in Serbia depends on the slightest incident." Wise conservative Ilija Garasanin was right about both. In connection with the incident, which may be the spark that will ignite more fire, and in particular he was right about the threat of Turkish guns. When the funeral procession reached the place where today is Kolarac, the Turkish cannons roared violently from Kalemegdan and spread deadly gunfire in Belgrade.
People in the parade fled in fear leaving the funeral boxes on the street. The bombing lasted from 9 am to 4 in the afternoon, and was repeated during the night of 17 and 18 of June. According to various sources in Belgrade was then killed between 20 and 50 people, and approximately 20 were injured. Destroyed or burned 20 houses, and between 350 and 400 houses were damaged.
Garasanin determined, but with a moderate tone telegraphed to Porta: "If Porta does not want to create complications, you should immediately cease such demonstrations, otherwise, although we are at peace with our suzerain, we will be forced to take actions in all threatened situations."
Meanwhile Prince Mihajlo returned from the interior of Serbia in Belgrade. From the assembly he got unlimited powers and declared state of emergency and mobilized 15,000 soldiers. In contrast to the moderate Garašanin, The Prince was ready for war with the Turks. In his speech to the people, he said, "Listen Serbs! Ašir Pasha bombs your capital and the sultan blames you! We are a free people, we have a Constitution, our rights are guaranteed ... People, my brothers! GO Soldiers! God help us!"
All foreign consuls in Belgrade except Austrian Vice-Consul - Serb Vasic (!), Have signed a statement blaming Ašir Pasha of violating the previously signed agreements and the bombing of the city. Turks replaced Ašir Pasha and sent Special Commissioner Ahmed Vefik to Belgrade to evacuate Turks from the fortress town.
Denouement Serbian government was not in agreement as to how to resolve the crisis. Garasanin was aware that Serbia is not ready for war, and a final showdown with the Turks, that there is no sufficient support from France and Russia, and that the Austrian and British support towards the Turks is unwavering. The dispatch of instructions addressed to Jovan Ristic in Constantinople, Garasanin writes: "The Serbian government must complain to Porta and the Protecting Powers and require measures to prevent this happening again ... If, sir, the powers agree that the bombing of Belgrade was the most flagrant abuse and violence or neglect of the rights of the people, it is clear that the simplest thing will be to prevent the recurrence of such incidents.
We have the moral strength to be patient and provide moderate answer to all unmotivated and repeated violence ... Serbian government believes that the best solution to restore confidence and ensure peace and order, is evacuation and destruction of fortresses."
Prince Mihailo has opposed Garasanins flexibility which was also supported by the President of the State Council Jovan Marinovic and Colonel Ipolit Monden, as future minister of defense. Mihailo in his letter to Ristic writes: "The dead knot, that exist between us and the Turks, it will not untie as long as the sword does not cut it... While there are Turkish cities in Serbia, there can be no progress and no survival for me."
Peace Conference on the resolution of the crisis was convened on 22 June Kanlidži, near Constantinople. Representatives of Serbia as a vassal principality were not invited to attend. France and Russia are mutually representing the interests of the Serbs requesting to evacuate Turkish garrison. Austria and the United Kingdom sided with Turkey – accusing Serbia for the conflict and asked for status quo. English Consul Bulwer wrote in a report: "The memorandum of Garasanin has no word of regret or condemnation of the atrocities to which I just referred. The fight followed naturally by the provocations from the population and dare I say, almost by the Serbian government, as the Garasanin memo contribute more to the fight than to avoid a conflict." Turks are skillfully using the favor of Austria and England. Equally blaming Garasanin and Prince Mihailo of militancy. They accused them of alleged mobilization of 80,000 soldiers and preperation of attacks on Turkish garrisons.
The initial unanimity of the great powers in condemning the Turkish bombing of Belgrade gradually subsided. Decisions of the conference in Kanlidži Was to warrant the Turks to demolish two small forts in Sokol and Uzice, to guarantee that there will be no bombing of cities and the Muslim population who live in Serbia outside the Turkish forts be evacuated from the country.
The Decisions were disappointed even to the moderates gathered around Garašanin, not to mention warlike group around Prince Mihailo. They considered it to be only a confirmation of previous agreements, ie. The Written order from 1830.
France and Russia are trying to persuade Serbia that more could not be obtained. They assured Garašanin that without their great efforts Serbia woulld not get even this much, and that the decisions of the conference would be completely in line with the English proposal - quite against Serbs and in favor of the Porte.
Prince Mihailo was initially opposed the acceptance of the decision made in Kanlidže. He threatened to dismiss them, and quarreled with his ministers - moderates. He said that he would rather die in the ruins of Belgrade. In the end, it was Garasanin and moderates who managed to persuade him to accept the decisions of the conference. The prince signed the offered protocol, lifted martial law and dissolved mobilized volunteers.
Four years later the infamous gates of Stambol was finally demolished. A year after that, because of live Serbian diplomatic action, favorable international conditions and the pressure of the great powers, Turks left the four remaining fortress in Serbia. Most delayed in leaving were the Belgrade Fortress. Under the final agreement, after leaving the Kalemegdan fortress in it, besides the just appointed Serbian, also kept waving the Turkish flag as a sign of supremacy of the Porte. The flag was symbolically cut and thrown from the walls into mud nine years later, when in 1876. The Principality of Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
The ceremonial and symbolic key handover of the cities to Prince Mihailo was performed in Belgrade April 6 in 1867. Names of cities that the Turks left in 1862. and in 1867. Are engraved on the plates that surround the monument to Prince Mihailo in Belgrade.
1868 Prince Mihailo Obrenovic was killed. He ruled Serbia on two occasions, 1839 – 1842 and 1860 – 1868. Mihailo`s consepts related to the role of Serbia in the Balkans was based on the idea that Prime minister Ilija Garasanin made in his draft 1844, which is an effort to unite the national aspirations and launch an all-out war of the Balkan peoples to topple the Ottoman Empire.
Translation by / Den Galna Serben